^ a b c d e f g Hughes SP, Freemont AJ, Hukins DW, McGregor AH, Roberts S (October 2012). The pathogenesis of degeneration of the intervertebral disc and emerging therapies in the management of back pain (PDF). J Bone Joint Surg Br. 94 (10): 1298–304. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.94B10.28986. PMID 23015552. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 October 2013.
Approximately 98 percent of people with back pain are diagnosed with nonspecific acute back pain in which there is no serious underlying pathology. Nearly 2 percent are comprised by metastatic cancers, while serious infections such as spinal osteomyelitis and epidural abscesses account for fewer than 1 percent.
^ Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, Rosenquist RW, Atlas SJ, Baisden J, Carragee EJ, Grabois M, Murphy DR, Resnick DK, Stanos SP, Shaffer WO, Wall EM, American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel (2009). Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: An evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. Spine. 34 (10): 1066–77. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181a1390d. PMID 19363457.
After only a month in bookstores, Crooked began shooting up the Amazon bestseller list, because back pain is so universal and so emotional. “It’s part of the human condition,” Ramin told San Francisco public radio. “Few of us will make it off this mortal coil without it.”
^ a b American College of Physicians, Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question, Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American College of Physicians, archived from the original on 1 September 2013, retrieved 5 September 2013
Opioid analgesics: These drugs are considered an option for pain control in acute back pain. The use of these medications is associated with serious side effects, including dependence, sedation, decreased reaction time, nausea, and clouded judgment. One of the most troublesome side effects is constipation. This occurs in a large percentage of people taking this type of medication for more than a few days. A few studies support their short-term use for temporary pain relief. Their use, however, does not speed recovery.
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^ a b c d e f Borczuk, Pierre (July 2013). An Evidence-Based Approach to the Evaluation and Treatment of Low Back Pin in the Emergency Department. Emergency Medicine Practice. 15 (7). Archived from the original on 14 August 2013.
Most episodes of back pain last a few days and have completely resolved within a few weeks. If you have new back pain, you should contact your doctor to see if you need further evaluation. There are also a few warning signs that may indicate a problem that needs immediate evaluation:
Spinal manipulation: Osteopathic or chiropractic manipulation appears to be beneficial in people during the first month of symptoms. Studies on this topic have produced conflicting results. The use of manipulation for people with chronic back pain has been studied as well, also with conflicting results. The effectiveness of this treatment remains unknown. Manipulation has not been found to benefit people with nerve root problems.
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Your chair should have elbow supports. This helps to prevent strain on the neck. Elbows should rest on the supports at a right angle. Knees should also be at a right angle. For shorter people, use a footrest to elevate your feet if it is required. While seated in your chair, your eyes should look straight ahead at your computer.
Paget’s disease can be diagnosed on plain X-rays. However, a bone biopsy is occasionally necessary to ensure the accuracy of the diagnosis. Bone scanning is helpful to determine the extent of the disease, which can involve more than one bone area. A blood test, alkaline phosphatase, is useful for diagnosis andmonitoring response to therapy. Treatment options include aspirin, other anti-inflammatory medicines, pain medications, and medications that slow therate of bone turnover, such as calcitonin (Calcimar, Miacalcin), etidronate (Didronel), alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and pamidronate (Aredia).
Sit smart. Choose a seat with good lower back support, armrests and a swivel base. Consider placing a pillow or rolled towel in the small of your back to maintain its normal curve. Keep your knees and hips level. Change your position frequently, at least every half-hour.
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