^ a b c d e f g Menezes Costa Lda, C; Maher, CG; Hancock, MJ; McAuley, JH; Herbert, RD; Costa, LO (7 August 2012). The prognosis of acute and persistent low-back pain: a meta-analysis. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal. 184 (11): E613–24. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111271. PMC 3414626 . PMID 22586331.
A few studies suggest that psychosocial factors such as on-the-job stress and dysfunctional family relationships may correlate more closely with back pain than structural abnormalities revealed in X-rays and other medical imaging scans.
Research suggests that topical medications may be just as effective as oral ones. Many of them worked significantly better than placebo. These medications can come in the form of gels, creams, patches, and more. One study also saw decrease in pain when people applied lavender essential oil or ointments prepared with cayenne peppers with acupressure.
Dr.McGill recommends “strengthening the core muscles responsible for protecting the spine instead of stretching our hamstrings. This does not mean doing hundreds of repetitions of crunches or other spine-bending exercises since those with back issues tend to have more motion in their backs and less motion and load in their hips.”
Endometriosis implants are most commonly found on the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines, and on the surface lining of the pelvic cavity. They also can be found in the vagina, cervix, and bladder. Endometriosis may not produce any symptoms, but when it does the most common symptom is pelvic pain that worsens just prior to menstruation and improves at the end of the menstrual period. Other symptoms of endometriosis include pain during sex, pain with pelvic examinations, cramping or pain during bowel movements or urination, and infertility.
Regular activity and gentle stretching exercises is encouraged in uncomplicated back pain, and is associated with better long-term outcomes. Physical therapy to strengthen the muscles in the abdomen and around the spine may also be recommended. These exercises are associated with better patient satisfaction, although it has not been shown to provide functional improvement. However, one study found that exercise is effective for chronic back pain, but not for acute pain. If used, they should be performed under supervision of a licensed health professional.
It is not clear whether men or women have higher rates of low back pain. A 2012 review reported a rate of 9.6% among males and 8.7% among females. Another 2012 review found a higher rate in females than males, which the reviewers felt was possibly due to greater rates of pains due to osteoporosis, menstruation, and pregnancy among women, or possibly because women were more willing to report pain than men. An estimated 70% of women experience back pain during pregnancy with rate being higher the further along in pregnancy. Current smokers – and especially those who are adolescents – are more likely to have low back pain than former smokers, and former smokers are more likely to have low back pain than those who have never smoked.
Electromyogram or EMG is defined as a test that records the electrical activity of muscles. Normal muscles produce a typical pattern of electrical current that is usually proportional to the level of muscle activity. Diseases of muscle and/or nerves can produce abnormal electormyogram patterns.
Shape—can be the conventional pillow-type cushions or wedge shapes where the top part is wider than the narrower bottom. The wedge is good for some people in the car. Some brands are heated for addition comfort to the lumbar area.
Physical examination evaluates your vital signs (eg, heart rate). It is not unusual for your blood pressure to be elevated as a result of pain. The doctor examines your spine, feeling for abnormalities and areas of tenderness.
Acute pain. This type of pain typically comes on suddenly and lasts for a few days or weeks, and is considered a normal response of the body to injury or tissue damage. The pain gradually subsides as the body heals.